The last conflict involving the Islamic Republic of Iran was the war against Iraq from 1980 – 1988 in which neither side came out as a clear victor. After eight years of war a ceasefire was declared between the two countries with no direct winner. The Iranians finally accepted United Nations Resolution 598 on the 20th July 1988 and a cease-fire came into force on the 20th August 20 1988.
Since the end of the conflict, both Iran and Iraq have officially recognized the ceasefire, and there has not been a resumption of hostilities. Diplomatic relations have been re-established, and the two countries maintain economic and political ties. So much so that Iran is embedded within Iraqi politics and its military capabilities.
However, throughout the Middle East there have been many skirmishes to which you can find the hand of Iran mixing disorder and chaos somewhere in the background. By using their proxies, or the Iranian resistance axis, Iran prefers to keep its hands out of the jumble of uncertainty. They use terms such as ‘baseless’ or those accusing them of wrongdoing as being ‘Iranophobic’ or ‘politically-motivated’. Language given in order to dissuade the accuser of actually saying anything negative about the theocratic Tehran government.
Since the current Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi came to office on the 3rd August 2021 he has been stating how he wants to promote ‘friendliness’ and ‘neighbourliness’ in the area of the Middle East and West Asia. He sees this as a way of amalgamating Muslim nations in common causes, such as security in those areas mentioned. There is a long-term goal here but one that at the moment is not very clear. Although one reason is to levitate itself from the isolation that it has found itself in due to its own makings.
But it must be made clear that the ideology of the revolution lives every day and to that end Iran will not change no matter how neighbourly they come across.
Bullying and Intimidation Tactics
There are times when the Islamic Republic of Iran likes to show the world how powerful they are by flexing its mass and using that weight to fire missiles or rockets at those ‘they believe’ are threatening them and to show that they are not easily threatened.
In March 2022 Iran launched missiles into the autonomous region of Kurdistan in the north of Iraq. The Iranian account was that they were targeting ‘terrorist’ groups that were based there after constant warnings from Iran regarding terrorist hiding near the border between Iraq/Kurdistan and Iran. The other story that was pushed out was that the targets were possibly a new United States consulate being built in Erbil. One civilian was injured in the attack.
Erbil is the capital city of Kurdistan and is nowhere near the border with Iran with the two nearest Iranian border towns of Piranshahr, Iran being116 Km direct and Sardasht, Iran being 170Km from Erbil.
Iran claimed on the 13th March 2022 that they had targeted with ballistic missiles a United States base and Mossad Training Centres.
Iraq demanded a “frank and clear explanation” for the attack from Iran. The Iraqi’s “summoned Iran's ambassador to Iraq to protest the Iranian missile bombardment of Erbil and the material losses it caused, and damage to civilian facilities and housing for citizens, in addition to spreading fear among the residents of those areas.”
Iran claimed that it had warned Iraq many times in the past that Iraqi territory ‘should not be used to conduct attacks on Iran.’ They also claimed on the 14th March 2022 that Iran was “calling it retaliation for an Israeli strike in Syria that killed two members of its Revolutionary Guard earlier last week.”
Iranian propaganda continued by claiming that their strike, “appears to have taken a heavy toll on Zionists.” (the term given to Israel by the government of Tehran). Tasnim News (a semi-official news agency in Iran associated with the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps) went onto say, “the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) has fired ten homegrown missiles with pinpoint accuracy in the attack on a strategic centre of Zionists in Erbil.”
The news outlet went on to say, “the IRGC has used Fateh-class missiles in the operation.” A further comment said, “The centre hit by the missiles was a place where a remarkable number of Zionists gathered, and considering the number of people present in that base, the likelihood of the (Zionist) regime’s human toll is very high.”
How a retaliatory strike on civilians and civilian buildings in Kurdistan had anything to do with the alleged killing of two IRGC guards is difficult to determine.
On the 3rd January 2024 a terrorist attack occurred in Kerman, known in ancient times as the satrapy of Carmania, is a city in the Central District of Kerman County, Kerman province, Iran, and serves as the capital of the province, county and district.
General Soleimani the former head of the IRGC-QF is buried in his hometown of Kerman. Soleimani was killed at Baghdad International airport by an American drone on the 3rd January 2020. He was believed to be behind a large number of attacks against the United States and Israel. There are thoughts that he was the orchestrator of the 2024 conflict between Israel and Hamas.
The terrorist attack, labelled by Iranian state media outlets, happened on the anniversary of Soleimani’s death. Two explosive devices detonated in two different locations resulting in many deaths and injuries. Iran blamed Israel and the United States for the attack. Iran said, “Washington says USA and Israel had no role in terrorist attack in Kerman, Iran. Really? A fox smells its own lair first,” the Iranian president’s political deputy, Mohammad Jamshidi wrote. ‘Both Israel and the United States rejected the accusations.’
On the 4th January 2024 the Islamic State claimed responsibility for the twin detonations in Kerman. In a statement posted on its affiliate Telegram channels, the terrorist group said two Daesh members had detonated their explosive belts in the crowd which had gathered at the cemetery in the city of Kerman on Wednesday for the anniversary of Soleimani's martyrdom. It was believed later that those responsible had had training in an Islamic State camp inside of Afghanistan.
Undeterred by this announcement Iran said they were taking prompt ‘legal measure’ through the United Nations following the attack. Hossein Amir Abdollahian Iran’s foreign minister wrote, "Based on initial information obtained from official sources, the Foreign Ministry has begun [taking] its prompt legal and international measures through the United Nations." There was no announcement as to who they were taking legal action against.
The following day Iran announced that they had arrested a number of suspects who had been involved in the attack. Interior minister Ahmad Vahidi told state TV (a government-controlled media outlet) “Our country’s capable intelligence agencies have found very good clues regarding elements involved in the terrorist explosions in Kerman and a section of those who had a role in this incident have been arrested,” he said without elaborating. Eventually eleven people were arrested for the incident.
The Tehran Times stated that Interior minister Ahmad Vahidi said, “journalists and media outlets point out the growing amount of evidence pointing towards Israeli involvement in a terrorist attack that killed at least 84 civilians in the southeastern city of Kerman.”
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf the Iranian parliament speaker said he had linked the Kerman terrorist attack to the operations of Takfiri groups (explanations on various groups can be found at the end of this paper) in the region, the Zionist regime in Gaza, and the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan. He added that the perpetrators of this heinous act have no regard for the lives of women, children, and civilians when it comes to fulfilling their nefarious agendas.
He characterized the killing of innocent civilians as a "common thread" that runs through the operations of Takfiri groups, the Zionist regime in Gaza, and the U.S. in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other countries.
Iran's Vice President for Parliamentary Affairs, Mohammad Hosseini, has strongly asserted that a mere statement from the United States is insufficient to deny its involvement in the terrorist incident that occurred in Kerman. The vice president highlighted that despite statements from the U.S. Department of State disclaiming any role in the Kerman explosions, all indications point to their support for the terrorist group, as seen in the narratives of Daesh terrorist group who claimed responsibility for the incident. (The Tehran government of Iran considers the origins of the Islamic State lay firmly with the United States)
The Islamic State Vs Israel
The Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL or Da’esh) has consistently expressed extreme hostility towards Israel. Its views are rooted in a radical interpretation of Sunni Islam and an extremist interpretation of jihad. ISIS perceives Israel as an illegitimate state occupying what it considers to be Muslim land, particularly in reference to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
ISIS has called for the destruction of Israel and the establishment of an Islamic Caliphate that encompasses the entire Muslim world, including the territory currently occupied by Israel. The group sees itself as a vanguard in the fight against what it views as the enemies of Islam, including Israel and other entities it considers to be in opposition to its interpretation of Islamic law.
The Islamic State has not carried out an orchestrated attack on Israel, though independent cells inspired by the terror group’s ideology have been arrested by Israeli security forces, several dozen Israeli Arabs are said to have been recruited by IS, and terrorists including Nashat Milhem (who murdered three Israelis in Tel Aviv, reported on the 31st October 2023) have identified with IS. According to a Times of Israel article, the Islamic State terror group published an article explaining why it does not attack Israel, arguing that the Palestinian issue should not get preferential treatment. The article argued that the Palestinian cause does not take precedence over any other jihadi struggle. The Islamic State argued that the apostate tyrants who rule the lands of Islam are graver infidels than the Jews, and war against them takes precedence over war against the original infidels.
Its difficult to see how Iran verifies the Israel and Da’esh amalgamation and be able to conduct a joint operation against Iran.
The Islamic State Vs the Islamic Republic of Iran
ISIS views Iran through the lens of its sectarian ideology, which is rooted in an extremist interpretation of Sunni Islam. The majority of Muslims worldwide are Sunni, but Iran is predominantly Shia. ISIS considers Shia Muslims, including the Iranian government, as apostates and has often targeted Shia communities in its attacks.
ISIS sees Iran as a rival and an adversary, not only due to sectarian differences but also because Iran has been involved in various regional conflicts where Da’esh operates. The group has condemned Iran's influence in Iraq and Syria, viewing it as interference in Sunni-majority areas.
The Islamic State has been an opponent of Iran and has carried out several attacks in the country. In 2022, the group claimed responsibility for a deadly attack on a Shia shrine in Iran that killed 15 people. The Islamic State argued that the apostate tyrants who rule the lands of Islam are graver infidels than the Jews.
15th January 2024 Kurdistan
Iran’s Revolutionary Guards said they attacked the “spy headquarters” of Israel in Iraq’s semi-autonomous Kurdistan region, state media reported. “In response to the recent atrocities of the Zionist regime, causing the killing of commanders of the Guards and the Axis of Resistance ... one of the main Mossad espionage headquarters in Iraq’s Kurdistan region was destroyed with ballistic missiles,” the Guards said in a statement. At least four civilians were killed and six injured in the strikes on Irbil, the Kurdistan government’s security council said.
Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Nasser Kanaani said Tehran respected the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other countries but at the same time was using its “legitimate and legal right to deter national security threats.” “After the enemy miscalculated by targeting the Islamic Republic, Iran retaliated with its high intelligence capability in a precise and targeted operation against the culprits’ headquarters.”
That same day Iran launched missiles toward Iraq and Syria to defend its sovereignty. Iran’s Tasnim News announced that Iran Launched Retaliatory Missile Strikes on Mossad, Daesh Targets. The missile strike on the Mossad espionage base in Erbil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq had been carried out in response to the Israeli assassination of a number of commanders of the IRGC and the resistance front, a statement said.
General Seyed Razi Mousavi, a member of the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps serving as a military adviser in Syria, was martyred in an Israeli airstrike in the residential neighbourhood of Zeinabiyah district in the suburbs of Damascus on the 25th December 2023. The statement also made reference to the twin attacks in Kerman.
The Iranian Foreign Ministry’s spokesperson Nasser Kanaani described the IRGC’s missile strikes on a Mossad centre in Iraq’s Erbil and the bases of terrorists in Syria’s Idlib as Iran’s defence of its sovereignty and partial punishment for harming the country’s security. Syria is a long way from Iran.
Kanaani went on, “The measure carried out (by the IRGC) was in line with the mighty defence of the country’s sovereignty and security and the fight against terrorism and was part of the Islamic Republic’s fair punishment for the violators of the country’s security,” he said. “The Islamic Republic of Iran always supports regional peace, stability and security and is committed to the observance of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries. Meanwhile, it will not hesitate about exercising its legitimate and legal right to resort to deterrent action against the sources of threat to its national security and safeguard the security of its citizens and punish the criminals,” Kanaani added. He noted that while the enemies committed crimes against Iran with their miscalculations, Iran has identified the bases of criminals in a detailed and targeted operation with its great intelligence capabilities and has hit those targets with precision-strike missiles. “This was part of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s response to those acting against Iran’s national security and the safety of Iranian citizens,” the spokesman stated.
Four people were killed in the attack on Erbil. Peshraw Dizayee, a well-known Kurdish businessman and the owner of Falcon Group which runs major projects such as Empire World, succumbed to his injuries. Dizayee, his youngest daughter, Saridar, and a housekeeper were killed.
Karam Mikhail Saridar, an Iraqi businessman was also killed in the Iranian attack on Erbil and it was strongly rejected claims that he was involved in business with Israel.
The IRGC claimed that "three Mossad bases" were targeted in Erbil. One rocket had fallen on the house of a senior Kurdish intelligence official and another on a Kurdish intelligence centre.
Iran’s foreign minister on 17th January 2024 doubled down on claims that the deadly Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) strikes on Erbil targeted bases of the Israeli intelligence despite Iraqi and Kurdish authorities’ categorical denial of such claims.
His Iraqi counterpart strongly denied the accusations and condemned Tehran’s “aggression”. Iran even produced unverified pictures of Dizayee with Mossad, and a member of the Kurdistan Freedom Party along with Israeli military personnel in an effort to substantiate their claim that he was a member of the Israeli spy team. Iraq recalled Ambassador Nassir Abdel Mohsen from Tehran.
On the 18th January 2024 Iraq filed a complaint against Iran at the UN Security Council over Iranian ‘aggression’. Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian said that Tehran had shared intelligence with Iraq about what it said were activities of the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad in Iraq's semi-autonomous Kurdish region. Iran has said its Revolutionary Guards attacked Israel's "spy HQ" in Iraq in the city of Erbil. Iraq denied that there was any such spy centre in the country. What happened in Erbil “had to do with the elements and agenda of the Mossad of the Israeli regime,” Amirabdollahian said.
Another casualty of the Erbil attack was a Dutch infant, a baby of less than one year old who was killed in the “Mossad spy” attack by Iran. Dizayee’s daughter Zhina, who held Dutch nationality was days away from her first birthday. Two of the Tehran government-controlled news outlets denied any evidence of the Dutch infant.
Tasnim news wrote that there is no evidence for the claim that a Dutch child has died in a missile strike that Iran launched against the base of Mossad in Iraq’s Erbil on Tuesday (16th January 2024), Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian said. The Iranian foreign minister stated, “We do not have any evidence proving that a child was killed in the Mossad terrorist headquarters in northern Iraq, but we draw the attention of the Dutch government to the genocide and massacre of thousands of Palestinian women and children in Gaza.”
Fars News Agency (The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran managed by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, an armed wing loyal to Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei) reported that Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir Abdollahian dismissed Amsterdam’s claim over the death of a Dutch baby in an attack by Tehran on Erbil in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. In a phone call with his Dutch counterpart Hanke Bruins Slot on the 19th January 2024, Amir Abdollahian said a missile strike by the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) on Erbil was conducted on the grounds of legitimate defence and in line with international law. Abdollahian finished the conversation with his Dutch counterpart by saying, “he also urged Amsterdam to take appropriate and effective measures to fight terrorism.”
Iran Attacks Pakistan
Tasnim News on the 16th January 2024 announced that the Islamic Republic had launched ‘precision missiles and drone attacks at locations over the border in Pakistan. They claimed that their targets were members of a terrorist group Jaysh al-Dhulm (Jeysh al-Adl). According to reports obtained by the Tasnim news agency, these bases were specifically targeted and successfully demolished by a combination of missile and drone attacks. In mid-December, the notorious Jaish al-Adl (known in Iran as Jaish al-Dhulm) terrorist group had stormed a police station in Sistan and Balouchestan province’s city of Rask, southeast of Iran, which resulted in the death of 11 Iranian Police officers.
After the attack the Republic of Pakistan authorities stated that the Iranian attack had killed two children and injured three girls. They also strongly condemned the attack describing it as an “unprovoked violation” of Pakistan’s airspace.
Pakistan’s foreign ministry said “This violation of Pakistan’s sovereignty is completely unacceptable and can have serious consequences,” it warned, adding that “the responsibility for the consequences will lie squarely with Iran.” Pakistan recalled its envoy from Tehran in response.
Tasnim News claimed in a statement from Iran’s Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian that “the retaliatory missile and drone strikes on Pakistani soil on Tuesday night have not harmed any Pakistani nationals, but have targeted the elements of an Iranian terrorist group, known as Jaish al-Adl.”
Amirabdollahian described the strike as a retaliatory response to the operation that Jaish al-Adl terrorists carried out against a Police headquarters in Iran’s Rask that killed 11 members of the Iranian security forces on the 15th December 2023. He added and underlined that no Pakistani citizen has been targeted in the raid against the terrorists. The attack was aimed at the Jaish al-Adl terrorist group, an Iranian group that has taken shelter in Pakistan.
The foreign minister reaffirmed Iran’s respect for the sovereignty of Pakistan, but made it clear that the Islamic Republic won’t allow anyone to play with its security.
18th January 2024
The Arab News reported on the 18th January 2024 that Pakistan had retaliated against the Islamic Republic of Iran’s attack on its sovereign territory by targeting separatist Baloch militants. Tehran demanded an explanation.
“A number of terrorists were killed during the intelligence-based operation,” Pakistan’s foreign ministry said, describing it as a “series of highly coordinated and specifically targeted precision military strikes against terrorist hideouts.”
Using the government of Tehran’s own words Pakistan authorities said, “Pakistan fully respects the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Islamic Republic of Iran,” the ministry added in its statement. “The sole objective of today’s act was in pursuit of Pakistan’s own security and national interest, which is paramount and cannot be compromised.”
A Pakistani intelligence source said the strikes were carried out by military aircraft. “Our forces have conducted strikes to target Baloch militants inside Iran,” said the official in Islamabad, the Pakistani capital. “The targeted militants belong to the Baloch Liberation Front (BLF),” he added, referring to the Baloch Liberation Front, which seeks independence for Pakistan’s Balochistan province.
Iran’s Foreign Ministry spokesman, Nasser Kanaani, condemned the attack carried out by the Pakistani military on a location in a border region in the southeastern province of Sistan and Balouchestan. The spokesperson emphasized that to officially convey the protest and request an explanation from the Pakistani government, the diplomatic representative of this country in Tehran was summoned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Islamic Republic of Iran backs down.
Iran said on the 18th January 2024 that, “it will not allow “enemies” (a term often employed to reference the United States and Israel) to harm its relations with Pakistan, following the exchange of deadly strikes between the two neighbours on each other’s territories.” The statement defended Iran’s strikes in Pakistan as a “preventive” operation, saying Iranian forces had detected a “terrorist” group preparing to launch an attack on Iran from Pakistan. The Iranian statement appeared to signal a willingness on Tehran’s part to move on from this rare episode of heightened tension with Pakistan.
Relations between Iran and Pakistan have been historically complex. Both countries have cooperated economically and formed alliances in a number of areas of mutual interest, such as fighting the drug trade along their border and combating the insurgency in the Balochistan region. However, the neighbours have also had tensions over the years, with both sides blaming the other for using their minorities as proxies for their own benefits.
The Iranian ministry stated, “The Islamic Republic of Iran, while being committed to the policy of good neighbourliness and brotherhood between the two nations and two governments of Iran and Pakistan, does not allow foes to strain good and brotherly relations between the two countries.”
Whilst the attacks on defenceless Kurds is one thing, the attack on a nuclear-armed country is another matter. The retaliation of the Pakistan authorities was fast and the government of Tehran probably did not think that it would happen. Their belief was that they would complain and summon ambassadors to voice their distaste and that nothing else would happen. Iran gambled on yet again breaching another countries sovereignty and then move on.
The two neighbours have occasionally attempted to cooperate. But more frequently they have accused each other of sheltering militants who carry out deadly attacks on the other country.
Relations Between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Pakistan
Although sharing 900-kilometre border, relations between the two countries have always been along the lines of distrust.
Islamabad-based expert on security issues Syed Rifaat Hussain said “The Iranian calculus is rather complex. Perhaps Iran overplayed its hand. They thought Pakistan will absorb the strike and will show restraint, or at most, a verbal protest.”
Professor Joshua White of international affairs and a non-resident fellow at the Brookings Institution think tank in the United States said that Iran and Pakistan have ample reasons to de-escalate after the “unusual strikes.” He added, “the reality is that both the governments deploy rhetoric about brotherhood when it suits them but are often suspicious of the other’s motives. This is a low-trust relationship, but neither Islamabad nor Tehran have much to gain from seeing tensions escalate.”
Iranian Foreign Ministry’s spokesperson Nasser Kanaani said on the 22nd January 2024 that “the relations between Iran and Pakistan are sturdy,” adding, “the ties between the two countries are friendly and brotherly, as they respect each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.”
Reuters reported in March 2019 that there had been an attempt to assassinate a top Pakistani cleric in Karachi. Former sharia judge of the country's Supreme Court, Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, was heading to a mosque to lead Friday prayers. At least four attackers were riding on two motorcycles and carried out the attempted assassination. Usmani was uninjured but his guard died.
On the 21st January 2024 the Counter-Terrorism Department (CTD) in Pakistan's southwestern Sindh Province said that they had arrested Syed Mohammad Mehdi who they believed was involved in the Usmani attempted assassination. Mehdi was accused of being a member of the Zainebiyoun Brigade, a militant group allegedly backed by Iran. Khuram Waris, who heads the CTD in Karachi said that Mehdi is a Pakistani citizen who received training in a "neighbouring country." "He is a member of the Zainabiyoun Brigade. He was involved in many attacks, including the attack on Mufti Taqi Usmani in Karachi."
The Zainebiyoun Brigade is a Shia Khomeinist militant group that has been actively engaged in the Syrian civil war. It was formed and trained by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards (IRGC) and operates under their command. The group draws recruits mainly from Shia Pakistanis living in Iran, with some also from Shia Muslim communities living in various regions of Pakistan. Yet again the hand of Tehran is seen in a neighbouring country.
Iran in the past has attacked countries with false accusations and who have been unable to retaliate. The Tehran government constantly makes reference to the deaths of women and children in the Israel conflict with Hamas while at the same time killing innocent females and children in attacks that Iran claims to be on alleged Israel targets. There is also the denial that another nationality was killed, a Dutch infant not even one year old, denying that there was no proof when clearly the Dutch government said that there was. That is appalling. Iran’s domestic murders are no different. In the recent demonstrations regarding the death of Mahsa Amini on the 16th September 2022 Iranian security forces shot and killed females and children. Those that they launch missiles and drones at do not stand a chance at retaliation. The Kurds for example, have no defences against Iranian military attacks and Iraq is riddled with politicians aligned to Iran. Even the Iraqi military is not exempt with elements loyal to Iran. However, on this occasion Iraq’s Prime Minister has complained to the United Nations and called the attacks on the Kurds “unacceptable” irrelevant of the reasons why. Whether the United Nations does anything about Iran or if Iran takes note, which is doubtful, it shows that those being bullied by Iran can fight back. Islamabad did with retaliatory strikes, using the same language and stating it was up to Iran if they wanted to escalate the scuffle. Iran backed down when faced with an opposition that could. Showing what bullies the Islamic Republic of Iran can be and there is a way of standing up to them. Iran will not stand up to the United States or directly confront Israel. They know if they do it will be their downfall. The revolutionary dream of their revolution will be left in tatters. But as long as countries do not stand up to them, they will continue to terrorise and intimidate. The only fight they can do is with their proxies.
Question: How many major conflicts has the Islamic Republic of Iran been involved in and won since it came into being after 1979?
A Takfiri group is a term used to describe a Muslim who accuses another Muslim of being an apostate, or infidel. This practice is considered a major forbidden act in Islamic jurisprudence, and is potentially a cause of strife and violence within the Muslim community. The term is often used to describe extremist groups that follow a strict interpretation of Islam, and are known for their violent tactics.
Iran’s President Ebrahim Raisi has drawn parallels between the modus operandi of the Daesh terror group and the Israeli regime, saying both entities are looking to take the lives of innocent civilians as they are unable to face their opponents on the battlefield.
Jaysh al-Dhulm (Jeysh al-Adl)
Jaysh al-Dhulm, also known as Jeysh al-Adl, is an armed militant group operating in the Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran and the border regions with Pakistan. The group has been involved in various activities, including attacks on Iranian security forces and incidents of kidnapping.
The group is composed mainly of ethnic Baloch militants and has been accused of having links to other militant organizations. The Iranian government considers the group to be a terrorist organization and has taken measures to counter its activities.
While it might not have a well-defined and publicly articulated ideology, its activities are primarily focused on what it perceives as the rights and interests of the Baloch people in the region.
The Baloch people, who primarily inhabit the Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran, have at times expressed grievances related to perceived discrimination and marginalization. There have been reports and claims by activists that members of the Baloch community face economic, social, and political challenges, leading to a sense of dissatisfaction among some Baloch individuals.
Some of the concerns raised by Baloch activists and human rights organizations include issues such as limited access to education and employment opportunities, underdevelopment in the region, and a sense of political marginalization. Additionally, there have been accusations of human rights abuses, including arbitrary arrests and mistreatment of individuals by security forces.
Pakistan considers Jaysh al-Dhulm (Jeysh al-Adl) to be a terrorist group. The group has been designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the United States.
The Baloch Liberation Front (BLF)
Baloch Liberation Front (BLF) is a militant organization that advocates for the rights and autonomy of the Baloch people, who primarily inhabit the border areas of Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The specific ideology of the BLF, like many insurgent or separatist groups, tends to revolve around regional autonomy, cultural preservation, and addressing perceived injustices or marginalization of the Baloch people.
The BLF has been involved in armed resistance against Pakistani security forces and has expressed grievances related to what it perceives as the economic exploitation of Balochistan's resources by the Pakistani government.
While the BLF's official statements and publications may provide more detailed insights into their ideology, in general, Baloch nationalist groups often emphasize the following elements: Ethnic identity, political autonomy, economic rights and social justice.
The group’s ideology is based on Marxism-Leninism and Baloch nationalism. The group has been designated as a terrorist group by Pakistan.